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语法精髓(1)|| 专治各种疑难句型

楼主:死磕经济学人 时间:2018-08-02 22:37:20 点击:10 回复:0
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  小编寄语:
  无论是翻译,写作,还是阅读,长难句总是最难过的坎,本栏目专为各位小可爱分析《经济学人》中出现的长难句,死磕各种句型,分析各种修辞手法,在解决阅读疑难杂症的同时,积累更多句型与修辞,让作文更加出彩!
  如需了解更多,关注公众号“死磕经济学人”,查看更多栏目——翻译、词汇、语法、写作。




  Between freedom and oppression stands a system to seek the consent of citizens, maintain checks and balances on governments and, when it comes to surveillance, set rules to restrain those who collect and process information.


  上榜理由:倒装句
  可以看出,正常语序的主语太长(主语为:a system to seek the consent of citizens, maintain checks and balances on governments and, when it comes to surveillance, set rules to restrain those who collect and process information),为了避免头重脚轻,将between开头的介词短语提前。
  英语中经常有这种用法,举几个栗子:
  例句1:In front of him is the girl whom he has crazy dreams about and whom he would give up everything for.
  译文1:让他魂牵梦绕的那个姑娘,让他愿意付出一切的那个姑娘,现在就在他的眼前。
  例句2:At the center of the storm is a tech giant that has brought enormous convenience to people's lives by harnessing the power of the internet.
  译文2:曾经,这家科技巨头利用强大的互联网,为人民的生活带来了巨大便利。现在,它却顶在风暴中心。

  参考译文:
  要在自由与压迫之间寻找中间地带,必须建立一个系统,寻求公民许可,制衡政府权力,监视公民的同时,也要对收集与处理信息的人员进行规则限制。



  Since then the digital revolution has transformed surveillance, as it has so much else, by making it possible to collect and analyse data on an unprecedented scale.


  上榜理由:难句
  如何理解 as it has so much else?
  背景:When East Germany collapsed in 1989, people marvelled at the store of information the Stasi security service had garnered on them, and the vast network of informants it took to compile it. 1989年,东德灭亡;此后,人们惊奇地发现东德史塔西国家安全部利用大规模情报网,收集了大量关于公民的信息。
  Since then the digital revolution has transformed surveillance, as it has so much else, by making it possible to collect and analyse data on an unprecedented scale.
  如果先不翻译as it has so much else,这句话的意思就是:从那之后,电子革命使得人们能够以前所未有的规模收集并处理信息,完全变革了情报收集的方式。
  as it has so much else中,it 是指的前面的 digital revolution,前后主语一致,谓语也是一样的形式(都是has作助动词),由as连接,所以其实是as引导的省略句(像......一样,正如......一样)。所以这个插入语的庐山真面目其实是:as digital revolution has transformed so much else.
  参考译文:
  从那之后,电子革命的发生,给生活的方方面面带来翻天覆地的变化,也使人们能够以前所未有的规模收集并处理信息,完全变革了情报收集的方式。




  The special election, called after the previous mayor died suddenly of a heart attack, has been defined by the twin topics of housing and homelessness.


  上榜理由:修辞手法
  英文中修辞手法非常多,本栏目中,小编也会为大家多摘抄一些使用了修辞手法的句子。
  这句话的修辞手法在哪里呢?
  没错,就是“housing and homelessness”,头韵alliteration
  头韵指两个单词或两个单词以上的首个字母相同且发音相同。
  举几个栗子:
  balanced budget 平衡预算
  first and foremost 首先
  weal or woe 福与祸
  saints and sinners 圣人与罪人
  by hook or crook 用尽一切手段

  参考译文:纽约前市长突发心脏病去世,因此举行了这轮特殊选举。此次选举围绕两个话题:住房提供与无家可归的人群。



  Natural disasters
  Counting Puerto Rico’s dead
  Hurricane Maria killed more people than was officially reported.



  上榜理由:修辞手法
  一般情况下,再给台风或飓风命名时,习惯用女性的名字如Hurricane Paula, Typhoon Alice,再如文中的“Hurricane Maria” 飓风玛丽亚。
  这种用法其实是“拟人”的修辞手法。比如英语中,如果指船只ship的话,一般也会用“she”,再比如:
  Mother Nature
  night--the queen of sleep
  the moon--Phoebe
  the sun--Apollo
  拟人例句:Dawn was beginning to prowl about the sky and put out the stars.
  译文:黎明悄然而至,扑灭了星辰。



  Drug users have little chance of getting information on the quality of the mind-altering substances they are taking. Nowhere is that truer than at summer festivals, where customers buy from unfamiliar dealers who have little incentive to retain their loyalty.


  上榜理由:隐藏的最高级
  句型:Nowhere is that truer than......
  例句1:People are increasingly looking for a getaway from the boredom of work. Nowhere is that truer than in China where it is not uncommon to see people working 12 hours a day.
  译文2:人们越来越想远离乏味的工作。在中国最是如此,因为中国人的工作时间经常是一天12小时 。

  参考译文:吸毒者无法得知他们吸食的毒品质量如何。在夏季节日活动上最是如此。吸毒者从不相识的贩毒者手中购买毒品,贩毒者也没有必要维持客户忠诚度(所以不会保证毒品质量)。



  Yet they are still the world’s eighth-biggest cause of death. Had they fallen as fast as in the top seven performers, America would have avoided 20,000 deaths a year.


  上榜理由:虚拟倒装句
  背景知识补充:这的they指“车祸”。
  对过去的虚拟:从句用had done,主句用would have done句型,
  例句:If you had told me that he had returned, I could have paid a visit.
  译文:如果你早告诉我他回来了,我就去看他了。
  变成倒装句:had提前
  Had you told me that he had returned, I could have paid a visit.
  所以原文的庐山真面目是:
  If they had fallen as fast as in the top seven performers, America wuld have avoided 20,000 deaths a year.

  参考译文:但是车祸仍是世界第八大死因。如果车祸死亡率能够像前七大死因一样快速下降,那便意味着美国每年能有2万人能免于死亡。

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